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英语干货知识:非谓语动词全面解说,建议收藏

发布日期:2021-10-02 00:18

本文摘要:点击关注“零食英语”,获取最实用的英语学习知识。非谓语动词主要包罗不定式、动名词和现在分词。为了区分这三种差别的非谓语动词的用法和寄义,我们将划分从三种非谓语动词在句子中做主语、宾语、宾语补足语、定语、状语、表语以及一些特殊结构句型等角度来区分其用法和细微寄义。 1.不定式和动名词作主语的区别(1)动名词作主语通常表现抽象行动;而不定式作主语表现详细行动。Smoking is prohibited(克制)here.这里克制吸烟。

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点击关注“零食英语”,获取最实用的英语学习知识。非谓语动词主要包罗不定式、动名词和现在分词。为了区分这三种差别的非谓语动词的用法和寄义,我们将划分从三种非谓语动词在句子中做主语、宾语、宾语补足语、定语、状语、表语以及一些特殊结构句型等角度来区分其用法和细微寄义。

1.不定式和动名词作主语的区别(1)动名词作主语通常表现抽象行动;而不定式作主语表现详细行动。Smoking is prohibited(克制)here.这里克制吸烟。(抽象)It is not very good for you to smoke so much.你抽这么多烟对你身体很欠好。(详细)(2)动名词作主语时,通常用以表现一件已知的事或履历。

不定式短语通常用来表现一件未完成的事或目的。Climbing mountains is interesting.爬山很有趣。

(履历)Driving a car during the rush hour is tiring.在岑岭时刻开车令人厌烦。(履历)(3)不定式做主语,一般用it当形式主语,把作主语的不定式短语后置。It took me only five minutes to finish the job.2.不定式、动名词和分词作表语的区别(1)不定式作表语1)不定式作表语一般表现详细行动,特别是表现未来的行动。To do two things at a time is to do neither.一次做两件事即是未做。

What I would suggest is to start work at once.我的建议是连忙开始干。2)如果主语是不定式(表现条件),表语也是不定式(表现效果)。

To see is to believe.百闻不如一见。To work means to earn a living.事情就是为了生活。

3)如果主语是以aim, duty, hope, idea, happiness, job, plan, problem, purpose, thing, wish等为中心的名词,或以what引导的名词性从句,不定式作表语是对主语起增补说明 作用。His wish is to buy a luxurious car in the near future.他的希望是在不远的未来买一辆豪华轿车。(2)动名词作表语:动名词作表语,表现抽象的一般性的行为。

Our work is serving the people.我们的事情是为人民服务。His hobby is collecting stamps.他的喜好是集邮。(注)动名词作表语时与举行时态中的现在分词形式相同,但其所属结构迥异,举行时态说明行动是由主语完成的。

动名词做表语,说明主语的性质或情况。(3)分词作表语分词做表语有两种情况,一种是现在分词做表语,一种是已往分词做表语,这两者区别是考试中经常考到的地方。一般来说,表现心理状态的动词如excite, interest等都是及物动词,汉语意思不是“激动”,“兴奋”,而是“使激动”、“使兴奋”,因而现在分词应该是“令人激动的”、“令人兴奋的”,已往分词则是“感应激动的”和“感应兴奋的”。

所以,凡表现“令人……的”都是-ing形式,通常表现“感应……”都用-ed形式。换句话说,若人对……感兴趣,就是somebody is interested in...,若人/物自己有兴趣时,就是说sb./sth. is interesting.这类词常见的有:interesting使人感应兴奋--interested感应兴奋的exciting令人激动的--excited感应激动的delighting令人兴奋的--delighted感应兴奋的disappointing令人失望的--disappointed感应失望的encouraging令人鼓舞的--encouraged感应鼓舞的pleasing令人愉快的--pleased感应愉快的puzzling令人费解的--puzzled感应费解的satisfying令人满足的---satisfied感应满足的surprising令人惊异的--surprised感应惊异的worrying令人担忧的--worried感应担忧的Travelling is interesting but tiring.旅行是有趣的,可是使人疲劳。

The pupils will get confused if they are made to learn too much.如果要学生学得太多,他们会感应糊涂的。The argument is very convincing.他的论点很令人信服。They were very excited at the news.听到这个消息,他们很是激动。

3.不定式和动名词作宾语的区别英语中大多数动词既可跟不定式,也可跟动名词作直接宾语,但有些动词要求:(1)不定式做宾语和宾语补足语1)下面的动词要求不定式做宾语attempt企图 enable能够 neglect忽视afford肩负得起 demand要求 long盼望arrange摆设 destine注定 mean意欲,计划begin开始 expect期望 omit忽略,漏appear似乎,显得 determine决议 manage设法cease停止 hate憎恨,厌恶 pretend冒充ask问 dread畏惧 need需要agree同意 desire愿望 love爱swear宣誓 volunteer志愿 wish希望bear蒙受 endeavor努力 offer提供beg请求 fail不能 plan计划bother扰乱;烦恼 forget忘记 prefer喜欢,宁愿care体贴,喜欢 happen碰巧 prepare准备decide决议 learn学习 regret歉仄,遗憾choose选择 hesitate犹豫 profess讲明claim要求 hope希望 promise答应,允许start开始 undertake承接 want想要consent同意,赞同 intend想要 refuse拒绝decide决议 learn学习 vow起contrive设法,图谋 incline有…倾向 propose提议seek找,寻觅 try试图2)下面的动词要求不定式做宾补:动词+宾语+动词不定式ask要求,邀请 get请,获得 prompt促使allow允许 forbid克制 prefer喜欢,宁愿announce宣布 force强迫 press迫使bride 收买 inspire鼓舞 request请求assist协助 hate憎恶 pronounce断定,表现advise劝告 exhort申饬,勉励 pray请求authorize授权,委托 help资助 recommend劝告,推荐bear容忍 implore恳求 remind提醒beg请求 induce引诱 report陈诉compel强迫 invite吸引,邀请, summon传唤command下令 intend想要,企图 show 显示drive驱赶 mean意欲,计划 train训练cause引起 instruct指示 require要求deserve应受 leave使,让 tell告诉direct指导 like喜欢 tempt劝诱entitle有资格 order下令 warn申饬enable使能够 need需要 urge激励,力说encourage勉励 oblige不得不 want想要condemn指责,谴责 lead引起,使得 teach教entreat恳求 permit允许 wish希望(2)有少数动词只能用动名词作宾语acknowledge认可,自认 cease 停止 mention说到,讲到admit 认可 tolerate忍受 dislike不喜欢,讨厌advocate:提倡,主张 complete完成 dread恐怖appreciate 感谢,浏览 confess坦白 endure忍受avoid制止 contemplate细想 enjoy享有,喜爱bear忍受 defer拖延 envy嫉妒can't help不禁 delay延迟 escape逃跑,逃避can't stand受不了 deny否认 excuse捏词consider 思量 detest嫌恶 fancy理想,喜好favor 造成,偏爱 mind 介意 repent悔悟figure描绘,盘算 miss错过 resent怨恨finish完成,竣事不得 pardon原谅,饶恕 resist反抗,阻止forgive原谅 permit 允许 resume恢复imagine设想 postpone延迟,延期 risk冒险involve卷入,包罗 practise 实行,实践 suggest建议hate讨厌 prevent阻止 save营救,储蓄keep保持 quit放弃停止 stand坚持,忍受loathe很是讨厌,厌恶 recall追念例如:I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.我很感谢两年前给我出国学习的时机。(3)有些动词后使用动名词和动词不定式作宾语的差异1)forget to do 忘记要去做某事(此事未做)forget doing忘记做过某事(此事已做过或已发生)2)stop to do 停止、中断(某件事),目的是去做另一件事stop doing 停止正在或经常做的事3)remember to do 记着去做某事(未做)remember doing记得做过某事(已做)4) regret to do对要做的事遗憾regret doing对做过的事遗憾、忏悔5)try to do努力、企图做某事try doing试验、试一试某种措施6) mean to do计划,有意要…mean doing意味着7)go on to do 继而(去做另外一件事情)go on doing 继续(原先没有做完的事情)8)propose to do 计划(要做某事)proposing doing建议(做某事)9) like /love/hate/ prefer +to do 表现详细行为;+doing sth 表现抽象、倾向观点(注)如果这些动词前有should一词,其后宾语只跟不定式,不能跟动名词。例如:I should like to see him tomorrow.10) need, want, deserve +动名词表被动意义;+不定式被动态表现“要(修、清理等)”意思。

Don't you remember seeing the man before?你不记得以前见过谁人人吗?You must remember to leave tomorrow.你可要记着是明天动身。I don't regret telling her what I thought.我不忏悔给她讲过我的想法。(已讲过)I regret to have to do this, but I have no choice.我很遗憾必须这样去做,我实在没措施。

(未做但要做)You must try to be more careful.你可要多加小心。Let's try doing the work some other way.让我们试一试用另外一种措施来做这事情。

I didn't mean to hurt your feeling.我没想要伤害你的情感。This illness will mean (your) going to hospital.得了这种病(你)就要进医院。

4.不定式、现在分词和已往分词作定语的区别(1)不定式作定语1)不定式与其所修饰的名词可能是主谓关系He was the last one to leave school yesterday.昨天他是最后一个脱离课堂的。The train to arrive was from London.将要到站的火车是从伦敦开来的。

2)不定式与其所修饰的名词可能是动宾关系Get him something to eat.给他拿点儿工具吃。She has a lot of work to do in the morning.早上他有许多事情要做。3)不及物动词组成的不定式做定语,要加上适当的介词和被修饰的名词形成逻辑上的动宾关系,这里的介词不能省去。

I need a pen to write with.我需要一支笔写字。There is nothing to worry about.没有什么值得发愁的。4)不定式修饰一些表现偏向、原因、时间、时机、权利等抽象名词如:ability能力,本事 drive赶,驾驶 movement运动,运动ambition理想,野心 effort努力,实验 need需要,需求campaign战役,运动 failure失败,不及格 opportunity时机chance时机 force力,压力,要点 promise许诺,希望courage勇气 intention意向,意图 reason理由,原因decision决议 method方法,方式 light光,光线,亮光determination刻意,决议 motive念头,目的 struggle奋斗,努力,tendency倾向,趋势 wish希望,愿望,祝愿5)被修饰的名词前有序数词、形容词最高级或next, second, last, only和not a,the等限定词时候,只能用不定式。

6)不定代词something, nothing, little, much, a lot 等习惯上用不定式做定语。John will do anything but work on a farm.除了农活,约翰什么都愿意干。7)如果其动词要求用不定式做宾语,或者其形容词要器接不定式做补语,则相应的名词一般用不定式做定语。如:tend to do---tendency to do;decide to do = decision to do;be curious to do = curiosity to doHis wish to buy a car came true.他要买辆车的愿望实现了。

Their decision to give up the experiment surprised us.他们放弃这个实验的决议使我们大吃一惊。He is always the first to come and the last to leave.他总是第一个到来,最后一个离去。

(2)分词作定语分词作定语时有下面几个特点:1)现在分词表现主动意义,已往分词一般表现被动含意。2)现在分词表现正在举行,已往分词表现状态或做完(完成)的事。

He rushed into the burning house.他冲进了正在燃烧着的屋子。The child standing over there is my brother.站在那儿的男孩子是我弟弟。The room facing south is our classroom.朝南的房间是我们的课堂。Have you got your watch repaired?你拿到谁人修好的表了吗?He is an advanced teacher.他是个先进教师。

3)下列不及物动词也以已往分词形式做定语或表语,但不具有被动意义,这点要注意:departed, elapsed, faded, fallen, gone, frown-up, retired, returned, risen, set, vanished, much-traveled, newly-arrived, recently-come(3)不定式和分词作定语时的时间关系一般来说,不定式所表现的行动发生在谓语动词所表现的行动之后;现在分词所表现的行动与谓语动词所表现的行动同时发生;已往分词表现的行动发生在谓语动词所表现的行动之前。例如:Do you want to see the doctor to be sent for from Beijing?你要见那位将从北京请来的医生吗?Do you want to see the doctor working on the case report in the office?你要见那位正在办公室里写病历的医生吗?5.不定式和分词作状语的区别(1)现在分词与已往分词作状语的区别。现在分词做状语与已往分词做状语的最主要区别在于两者与所修饰的主语的主动与被动关系的区别。

1)现在分词作状语时,现在分词的行动就是句子主语的行动,它们之间的关系是主动关系。He went out shutting the door behind him.他出去后将门随手关上。Not knowing what to do, he went to his parents for help.由于不知如何办是好,他去找怙恃帮助。2)已往分词作状语时,已往分词表现的行动是句子主语蒙受的行动,它们之间的关系是被动关系。

Given more attention, the trees could have grown better.如果对这些树多体贴一些,它们原来会长得更好。Faced with difficulties, we must try to overcome them.在遇到难题的时候,我们必须设法克服。(2)动词不定式和分词作状语的区别1)分词作状语一般表现陪同,而不定式经常表现目的。

They stood by the roadside talking about the plan.他们站在路边谈论着这个计划。(陪同)They stood by the roadside to talk about the plan.他们站在路边为的是谈论这个计划。(目的)2)分词作状语放在句子开头,除表现原因之外有时表现时间或条件。

动词不定式作状语时,除了表现目的以外,还表现效果或原因。Reading attentively,he forgot the time for lunch.由于在专心念书,他忘了吃午饭的时间。(原因)Reading carefully,he found something he had not known before.他仔细念书时,发现了一些从前不知道的工具。

(时间)Reading carefully,you'll learn something new.只要你仔细阅读,你会学到一些新的工具。(条件)His family was too poor to support him.他的家庭太穷,不能维持他的生活。(效果)The boy is not tall enough to reach the book shelf.这男孩个子不够高,手伸不到书架。

(效果)We are glad to hear the news.我们很兴奋听到这消息。(原因)(3)下面一些句型是不定式做状语时候应该注意的:a:not/never too…to, too…not to , but/only too… to, too ready/eager/apt/inclined to 表现肯定意义b:做效果状语的不定式只能泛起在句子的末尾,常见的不定式动词有:find, hear, see, be told, form, give, make, produce 等。

c:不定式做状语时,其逻辑主语一般为句子的主语,否则用for引导主语。6.非谓语动词常考的其它结构(1)疑问词+不定式结构疑问词who,what,which,when,where和how后加不定式可组成一种特殊的不定式短语。

它在句中可以用作主语、宾语、表语和双重宾语。如:When to start has not been decided.何时动身尚未决议。(主语)I don't know what to do.我不知道该怎么办。(宾语)The difficulty was how to cross the river.难题在于如何过河。

(表语)I can tell you where to get this book.我可以告诉你那里可以买到此书。(双重宾语)注)A.有时疑问词前可用介词,如:I have no idea of how to do it.我不知道如何做此事。B.动词know 后面不能直接跟不定式作宾语,只能跟疑问词(如:how, what)+不定式:While still a young boy, Tom knew to play the piano well and as he grew older, he wrote operas, the most famous of which is Carmen.(2)介词except和but作“只有…,只能…”讲时跟不定式结构(but与不带to的不定式连用)。

When the streets are full of melting snow, you cannot help but getting your shoes wet.(3)不带to的不定式1)在表现生理感受的动词后的不定式不带to。这类词有:feel 以为 observe 注意到,看到 overhear听到watch注视 listen to听 perceive察觉,感知notice注意 see瞥见 look at看 hear听On seeing the young child fell into the lake,Eric sprang to his feet,and went on the rescue.2)另一类是某些使役动词,如make, let,have等。

如:Let him do it.让他做吧。I would have you know that I am ill.我想要你知道我病了。

(注):①上述感受动词与使役动词转换为被动结构时.其后的不定式一般需带to,如:He was seen to come.The boy was made to go to bed early.②在动词find与help之后,不定式可带to亦可不带to,如:He was surprised to find the sheep (to) break fence at this season.他发现羊在此季节越出栅栏,感应惊讶。3)在do nothing/anything/everything but(except)结构中。例如:Last night I did nothing but watch TV.昨天晚上,我除了看电视此外什么也没有干。

可是,如果谓语动词不是“do nothing,anything,everything”,那么but(except)所跟的不定式则仍须带。The doctor told him nothing but to stop smoking.医生除了让他戒烟,其它什么都没有说。

There was nothing for them to do but to remain silent.除了保持缄默沉静以外,他们没有别有此外措施。(4)不定式与动名词的逻辑主语和分词独立结构1)不定式的逻辑主语为:for +名词(或代词宾格)+ 不定式。例如:I found it impossible for him to do the job alone.我发现他—小我私家干这活是不行能的。

(注)在表现人物性格、特性等的形容词后面,常用of引出不定式的逻辑主语。例如:It was wise of him to do that.他那样做是明智的。2)动名词的逻辑主语为;①人称代词的所有格+动名词;②名词's+动名词。

例如:Tom insisted on my going with them.他坚持要我和他们一起去。He dislikes his wife's working late.他不喜欢他妻子事情得很晚。

3)某些形容词,如:careless等不定式后可以加of来引导出其逻辑主语。这类词主要有:absurd, bold, brave, courageous, careful, careless, clever, wise, foolish, silly, stupid, good, nice, kind thoughtful, considerate, greedy, generous, honest, modest, polite, rude, cruel ,selfish, wicked, wrong等It is very kind of you to help me.你资助我太好了。间或也可用for + there to be表现(而且there后面的不定式只能是to be)。

It's a great pity for there to be much trouble in the company.太遗憾了公司里有这么多的贫苦。7.非谓语动词中的有关句型(1)动名词作主语的句型1)Doing...+ v. Reading is an art.阅读是门艺术。Seeing is believing.眼见为实。

2) It is + no use, no good (fun, a great pleasure, a waste of time, a bore...)等名词+doing sth.It is no use crying.哭没有用。It is no good objecting.阻挡也没有用。It is a great fun playing football.打篮球很有趣。

It is a waste of time trying to explain.设法解释是浪费时间。3)It is + useless (nice, good,interesting, expensive等形容词)+ doing sth.It is useless speaking.光说没用。

It is nice seeing you again.真兴奋又遇到了你。It is good Playing chess after supper.晚饭后弈棋挺好。It is expensive running this car.开这种小车是浪费。

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